this is mostly collected from some of my previous posts :
1 - venus transit 2012 - map
world visibility of the transit of venus on 5-6 June 2012
2 - black drop effect
The Black Drop effect of the 1874 Venus transit across the Sun as observed and drawn by Forbes.
3 - venus expedition isfahan
‘Venus’ german astronomy expedition in Iran (Isfahan), 1874 (photo Hoeltzer)
4 - venus ruler of libra and taurus (manuscript)
Venus (ruler), signs Taurus and Libra along with lunar mansions - Persia 17th c.
visual and symbolic correlations with Saraswati (goddess of learning, music and arts - guardian of the Earth)
In Persian, Venus corresponds to ‘Anahita’ - the ‘immaculate’ & ‘pure’ one - in the Avesta, her main attributes were rivers. She embodied the fertilizing flow of water from the fountain in the stars. In ancient Iran Anahita was a Goddess worshipped as personification of pure water and eternal fire. She was like a wild river and was described as driving a chariot drawn by four white horses representing the wind, rain, clouds and snow/hail. She was both war-like and associated with fertility, she also ruled semen and human fertility and some say that ritual prostitution occurred in her temples in order to “purify the seed of males and the womb and milk of females”.
In ancient art of Iran we find many motifs related to Anahita that can usually be identified by her seals: the lotus flower, a bird and a tiara.
Similar to Anahita was another major feminine deity whose cult was predominant in the ancient world - and in Mesopotamia her name was Inanna / Ishtar (Setareh in Farsi, which means star) , represented as an armed woman sometimes with wings sometimes surrounded with ‘stars’ and standing on a Lion. Her nature was dual as she was both Goddess of LOVE and WAR depending on whether she was visible at dawn or dusk. Inanna / Ishtar was originally assigned three names reflecting three attributes of the Goddess and associated with three phases of Venus visibility :
Inanna-hud, Inanna-sig , Inanna-kur = evening, morning and netherworld..